The Red Summer

When communists came to America

The Red Summer refers to the race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities in the United States during the summer and early autumn of 1919.

The riots followed postwar social tensions related to the demobilization of veterans of World War I, both black and white, and competition for jobs among ethnic whites and blacks. The riots were extensively documented in the press, which along with the federal government conflated black movements with bolshevism.

Activist and author James Weldon Johnson, employed since 1916 by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, which was founded by a  romanian jew named Henry Moskowitzas, but that’s another story)  a field secretary, coined the term “Red Summer.”

In 1919, he organized peaceful protests against the racial violence of that summer.
The Red Scare and the communist party (1919–1923) From its inception, the Communist Party USA came under attack from state and federal governments and later the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In 1919, after a series of unattributed bombings and attempted assassinations of government officials, and judges (later traced to militant adherents of the radical anarchist Luigi Galleani), the US Department of Justice headed by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, acting under the Sedition Act of 1918, began arresting thousands of foreign-born party members, (mostly Eastern European jews) many of whom the government deported.

The Communist Party was forced underground and took to the use of pseudonyms and secret meetings in an effort to evade the authorities.

The party apparatus was to a great extent underground. It re-emerged in the last days of 1921 as a legal political party called the Workers Party of America. As the red scare and deportations of the early 1920s ebbed, the party became bolder and more open. An element of the party, however, remained permanently underground and came to be known as the “CPUSA secret apparatus.”

“Evidence is accumulating in the files of the Government to show that the negroes of this country are the object of a vicious and apparently well financed propaganda” NY times 1919

Sources 1. Perl, Peter (March 1, 1999). “Race Riot of 1919 Gave Glimpse of Future Struggles”. The Washington Post. Retrieved July 9, 2019

2.The New York Times (October 12, 1919g). “Article 34 —

3.The New York Times (October 19, 1919a). “Reds are Working among Negroes”

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