The unknown genocide, and killer of the Tsar

Filipp Isayevich Goloshchyokin Born 9 March 1876 in Nevel to a family of Jewish contractors, his true birth name is unkown like many bolsheviks he changed his name to hide his ethnicity.In 1912, he was a delegate to the Bolshevik Congress in Prague, at which Vladimir Lenin formalized the break with the Mensheviks and created a separate Bolshevik organization with its own Central Committee, of which Goloshchyokin was a founding member. He assumed the alias Filipp.After the success of the October Revolution and the outbreak of the Russian Civil War, he was elected to the Presidium of the Ural Regional Soviet, based in Ekaterinburg, and was elected Military Commissar of the Urals, where he formed and headed the Red Guard in the region and oversaw the activities of the Red Army Reserve District in Ekaterinburg. 

While he was in Moscow in the spring of 1918, Goloshchyokin decided to first suggest to Yakov Sverdlov that the former Emperor Nicholas II should be moved to Ekaterinburg, where there was less chance of his being rescued by the anti-Bolshevik White Army.In June 1918, amidst the rapid gains made by the White Army in the Ural Region, Goloshchyokin was in Moscow for the Fifth Congress of Soviets, spoke to Lenin and Sverdlov, and it appears that they agreed that the Tsar should be killed without delay.While Beloborodov and Safarov remained at the local Cheka Headquarters at the Amerikanskaya Hotel nearby, Goloshchyokin arrived personally at the Ipatiev House as a representative of the Ural Soviet to direct the executions, but did not appear to physically participate in the shooting himself, and instead remained outside with the other guardsmen while Yurovsky personally led the assembled the Jewish bolshevik  death squad.

Goloshchekin Genocide
On 19 February 1925, he was appointed First Secretary of the Communist Party in the newly created Kazakh Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic. From 1925 to 1933 he ran the Kazakh ASSR with virtually no outside interference as a local dictator.Goloshchyokin ordered that Kazakhstan’s largely nomadic population was to be forced to settle in collective farms. This caused a deadly famine in Kazakhstan known within Kazakhstan as the Goloshchekin Genocide, which killed between 1 and 3 million people. 38% of all Kazakhs died, the highest number of any ethnic group killed per capita in the Soviet famines of the early 1930s.

While a general figure of around 1-2 million deaths is often given, some Kazakh historians give significantly higher estimates of the number of victims of the famine and violence, such as Professor K.M. Abzhanov, Director of the Institute of History and Ethnology who stated that: “Hunger killed at least 3 million Kazakhs. One-sixth of the indigenous population left their historical homeland forever. Of 3.5 million Kazakhs in 1897 accounting for 82% of the region’s population, by 1939 there were only 2.3 million, their share in the population of the republic fell to 38%”. Two Soviet censuses show that the number of the Kazakhs in the Kazakh ASSR dropped from 3,637,612 in 1926 to 2,181,520 in 1937. The actions of the Soviet government made Kazakhs a minority in the Kazakh ASSR, and not until the 1990s did Kazakhs become the largest group in Kazakhstan again.

A historian of the revolution, V.L. Burtsev, who knew Goloshchyokin, characterized him as such:
This is a typical Leninist. This is a man who does not stop the blood. This trait is especially noticeable in his nature: the executioner, cruel, with some elements of degeneration. In party life he was arrogant, was a demagogue, a cynic. He did not count the Kazakhs as people at all. Goloshchekin did not have time to appear in Kazakhstan, as he stated that there is no Soviet power, and it is “necessary” to orchestrate a “Small October”.
Statements have been made that, in seven years, he never went outside the capital and was not interested in how the people lived, and did not correspond to reality. In April 1931, Goloshchyokin traveled only ten districts. The handling of collectivization and “dekulakization” under his leadership in Kazakhstan is remembered by a feeling of hatred and horror by the Kazakh people.

Unlike most prominent Old Bolsheviks, he survived the Great Purge unscathed for as long as Nikolai Yezhov was the head of the NKVD; but when Yezhov was arrested in 1939, he made a detailed confession to his interrogators, including the information that he had lived in Goloshchyokin’s apartment in Kzyl-Orda, then the capital of the Kazakh ASSR, in the latter half of 1925, and that during those months, they were homosexual lovers.Homosexuality was not a criminal offense in the USSR in 1925, though it was criminalized in 1934. He was one of 20 ‘especially dangerous’ prisoners, who included 14 high-ranking military officers, who were executed by firing squad on 28 October 1941 on the direct orders of Lavrentiy Beria, and consigned to an unmarked grave.

Sources 1.People’s Tragedy, The Russian Revolution 1891-1924. 

2.The House of Government: A Saga of the Russian Revolution

3.Fear and the Muse Kept Watch, The Russian Masters – from Akhmatova and Pasternak to Shostakovich and Eisenstein – Under Stalin.

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